Democratic Representative Miguel Garcia’s legislation would require anyone selling a gun privately or at a gun show to do a background check on buyers first.
The measure failed on an eight-to-eight vote.
Democrat Representative Eliseo Alcon joined republicans in voting it down.
Garcia says he and other lawmakers plan on changing parts of the bill and trying to bring it up for another vote later.
“Trying to address some of the concerns is difficult, but i still feel that this has a chance to resurrect,” Garcia said.
“This judiciary committee is full of lawyers for a reason. We like taking time to make sure the legislation is ready to move on. That's why we spend so much time on our bills, and this wasn't,” Representative Nate Gentry said.
Monday’s hearing, which would have usually been held in a small committee room, was moved to the house floor because of the crowd that turned out.
Governor Susana Martinez still has not said how she feels about the bill.
Republican Representative Bill Rehm has introduced a bill that increases penalties for gun crimes.
Under Rehm's bill, anyone convicted of stealing a gun, using a gun in a crime or is a felon with a firearm would face a five year sentence for the first offense and 10 year sentence for the second.
Those sentences could not be suspended.
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New Mexico is located in the southwestern region of the U.S. Inhabited by Native American populations for many centuries, New Mexico has also been part of Imperial Spain, part of Mexico, and a U.S. territory.